Procerus

Generalinformation

Procerus is a small, triangular muscle in the head that occupies the glabella, the area between the eyebrows. The muscle, along with the nasalis, levator nasolabialis and depressor septi nasi, make up the facial muscles nasal group.

Literal meaning

The tall, slender muscle.

Interesting information

Procerus, like the other facial nerves, originates from the second pharyngeal arch. When it contracts, the procerus muscle allows frowning, which makes it important in human facial expressions.

Origin

Nasal bone, (superior part of) lateral nasal cartilage

Insertion

Skin of glabella, fibres of frontal belly of occipitofrontalis muscle.

Function 
Depresses medial end of eyebrow, wrinkles skin of glabella.

Nerve supply

Temporal, lower zygomatic or buccal branches of facial nerve (CN VII).

Blood supply

Angular and lateral nasal branches of facial artery.

Procerus

Relevant research

The 'Procerus sign' remains an important clinical clue for early Progressive Supranuclear palsy. 'Procerus sign' has been described as vertical wrinkles in the glabella region and bridge of the nose of patients with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy. The action of Corrugator and Orbicularis Oculi produce the vertical wrinkling.

Bhattacharjee S. (2018). Procerus Sign: Mechanism, Clinical Usefulness, and Controversies. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, 21(2), 164–165.

Batla, A., Nehru, R., & Vijay, T. (2010). Vertical wrinkling of the forehead or Procerus sign in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy. Journal of the neurological sciences, 298(1-2), 148–149.

Procerus exercises

Eyebrow lift (one sided)

Eyebrow lift (one sided)

Lift one eyebrow as high as possible. Then relax. Repeat on the other side.

 

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